Celebrity activism: Help or hindrance?

“We have entered a new era where celebrities increasingly occupy institutional positions of power – in this case through activist, diplomatic and charity initiatives.” (Tsaliki et al. 2011, p.9)

Recent years have seen a growth in the amount of celebrities engaged in humanitarian activities. The website Look to the Stars has calculated that over 2,500 charities have some form of celebrity support. Celebrities don’t intentionally go into humanitarian work and political activism with the intent of causing more harm than good, although recent studies reveal that the involvement of a celebrity with a cause tends to de-politicise activism. Celebrities are masking the complex dynamics of power and socioeconomic relations in favour of one simple, grand solution (Cole, Radley & Falisse, 2015).

When celebrities become involved with charities or start their own charity organisations it provides them with access to new outlets, political talk shows or international forums, and it also helps to polish their own personal brands and identities. Madonna, through her charity Raising Malawi, and Oprah Winfrey, through her Leadership Academy for Girls in South Africa have embraced the fight for girl’s education and poverty in Africa. However, while these celebrities hope to bring serious issues to a larger audience, and help found accommodation and education, the problems lie in their knowledge or expertise in the area.

In 2007 Oprah Winfrey officially opened the doors for the school she founded, a $40 (US) million dollar, Leadership Academy for Girls in South Africa. However, since opening, the Leadership School has faced a number of serious allegations. In November 2007 the school’s dormitory matron Virginia Makopo was charged with 13 separate counts of abuse. When Oprah addressed the public about these serious occurrences at her Leadership Academy for Girls, she stated that “I will do everything within my power to ensure [the girls’] safety and well-being,” (Oprah Winfrey, as referenced by Perry, 2007). However, in 2009, more allegations rocked the school as four pupils were expelled and another three suspended for ‘inappropriate behaviours’ which were said to include sexual misconduct against other students. Then, in 2011, another scandal rocked the school as a deceased newborn baby was found in the backpack of a 17 year old girls schoolbag.

Madonna Ciccone founded the organisation Raising Malawi in 2006; it was originally created in order to bring an end to the extreme poverty and hardship endured by Malawi’s one million orphans. However, the project was significantly weakened when auditors uncovered outlandish expenses within the business structure, including extravagant salaries, private cars and golf club memberships. In 2011 Madonna’s charity again came under fire when $3.8 (US) million disappeared and a planned school was left un-built. The intentions of Madonna’s Raising Malawi charity were again questioned later in 2011 after the President of Malawi accused her of exaggerating her charity’s contribution, of exploiting her aid work for personal publicity, and bullying state officials.

As these examples demonstrate, many flaws can be found in cases where celebrities have become involved in activism. However, there are certainly areas of charitable campaigning that have benefited enormously from celebrity exposure. For example, actor Ben Affleck can be considered a celebrity humanitarian for his work in the Eastern Congo. With over a dozen trips to eastern Congo, Affleck visited refugees in camps for internally displaced persons, hospitals, and gold mines where he met warlords and peacemakers, survivors and aid workers. Ben Affleck, together with the advisory firm Williamsworks formed the Eastern Congo Initiative (ECI). As the advisory firm states on their website, “In 2007, Williamsworks began working to shape an inventive grant-making and advocacy organisation by and for the people of eastern Congo – an impactful and sustainable way to make a difference in the lives of people a world away,” (WIlliamsworks). The ECI has given grants to 23 community-based organisations. With the support of USAID, ECI has also created a database to connect funders to Congolese organisations. Unlike many other celebrity-founded organisations, the ECI is privately funded by a network of financial elites and does not rely on means-tested grant cycles or public support.

Sean Penn is another celebrity whose volunteer work can be considered humanitarian. The J/P Haitian Relief Organisation (HRO) is a non-profit organisation founded by Sean Penn in response to the January 12, 2010 earthquake in Haiti. J/P stands for Jenkins-Penn, a reference to Sanela Diana Jenkins, whose foundation supported initial relief efforts, with Sean Penn. Penn arrived in Haiti a week after the earthquake with the objective of distributing medicine to emergency trauma units within the country. He expected to stay for two weeks but is still active in rebuilding Haiti, working with local Haitians to build J/P HRO. With a staff of nearly 400, 98% of which are Haitian, J/P HRO continues to evolve as an organization renowned for sustainable, community-driven developments. Since 2010, the J/P Haitian Relief Organisation has treated more than 260,000 patients in two free clinics, helped 500 children receive free education, provided clean water to 10,000 people and distributed 14,500 tents to families across the country

Human Rights Center researcher Alexandra Babadin argues that celebrity humanitarians play an important bridging role, introducing a wide audience to issues in the developing world (2014). They also use their star power to gain access to policy-making circles to effect social and political change. Ben Affleck’s Initiative proposals are based on serious preparation, he has spent years gaining an in-depth understanding of Eastern Congo, consulted with professionals, and narrowed his advocacy efforts to a single region. Sean Penn has also been active in educating himself about Haiti’s people and culture, and Penn remains active in funding the construction of buildings and support systems for those in need, he is also involved in introducing health care, and providing support networks of trained people to help Haitian people recover.

As celebrity humanitarians grow in number and build influence, they should consider the potential implications, good and bad, that they may have on the lives of people around the world. Those celebrities who hope to change the world should take action, but only after educating themselves, through thoroughly understanding the global issues and participating in politics at all levels.

Reference List 

2013, ‘Sean Penn: It’s time to seize opportunities in Haiti, The World Bank, May 3, viewed 27 October 2013, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2013/05/03/Sean-penn-haiti-jphro-opportunities

Budabin, AC 2014, ‘Do Celebrity Humanitarians Matter?’ Carnegie Council, December 11, viewed 27 October, http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/ethics_online/0100

Cole G, Radley B, & Falisse JB 2015, ‘Who really benefits from celebrity activism?‘ The Guardian, 10 July, viewed 27 October 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/lifeandstyle/2015/jul/10/celebrity-activism-africa-live-aid

Eastern Congo Initiative, Williamsworks, viewed 27 October 2015, http://williamsworks.com/our-clients/eastern-congo-initiative/

Hedley, C 2009, ‘Oprah Winfrey School in South Africa Faces Second Sex Scandal’ The Telegraph, 31 March, viewed 28 October 2015, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/southafrica/5082517/Oprah-Winfrey-school-in-South-Africa-faces-second-sex-scandal.html

Hughes, D 2011, ‘Cops Probe Body of Dead Newborn Found at Oprah Winfrey’s School’, ABC News, 18 February, viewed 27 October 2015 http://abcnews.go.com/International/troubles-oprah-winfreys-school-south-africa/story?id=12950275

Macatee, R 2013, ‘Sean Penn’s Haiti Relief Organization Receives $8.75 Million Grant, E Online, March 13, viewed 27 October, http://au.eonline.com/news/397096/sean-penn-s-haiti-relief-organization-receives-8-75-million-grant

Oprah Winfrey Leadership Academy, viewed 27 October 2015, http://www.owla.co.za/

Perry, A 2007, ‘Oprah Scandal Rocks South Africa’, Time, 5 November, viewed 27 October 2015, http://content.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1680715,00.html

Provest, C 2011, ‘Madonna’s folly in Malawi, The Guardian, 31 March, viewed 27 October, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2011/mar/30/madonna-malawi-charity

Raising Malawi, viewed 27 October 2015, http://www.raisingmalawi.org/

Tsaliki L, Frangonikolopoulos, CA, Huliaras 2011, Transnational Celebrity Activism in Global Politics: Changing the World?. Bristol, GBR: Intellect LTD. ProQuest ebrary.

We are JPO 2010, J/P Haitian Relief Organization, http://jphro.org/

Celebrity activism: Help or hindrance?

Celebrities – Activist or Humanitarians?


A Celebrity humanitarian is a celebrity figure who has moved beyond his/her day job as an entertainer to delve into the areas of foreign aid, charity, and development. In recent years there has been a growth in the amount of celebrities that are engaging in humanitarian activities.

The rise and influence of celebrity humanitarians activate debates on the consequences of their involvement. For some academics and practitioners, celebrities are welcome figures in humanitarianism: educating the public on global issues, raising funds, and using their populist appeal to draw attention to policy-making arenas. For others, celebrity humanitarians are highly problematic figures who dilute debates, offer misguided policy proposals, and lack credibility and accountability (Budabin 2014).

Ben Affleck is a celebrity who can be considered a celebrity humanitarian for his work in the Eastern Congo. In 2008, Affleck began suggesting that fundraising alone, in particular around Africa, was insufficient and potentially counterproductive.

It was also around 2008 that Ben Affleck chose to focus his humanitarian activities on the DRC; he embarked on a series of steps to educate himself, reading widely and speaking with experts. During nine trips to eastern Congo, he visited refugee and camps for internally displaced persons, hospitals, and gold mines where he met warlords and peacemakers, survivors and aid workers.

Affleck turned to an advisory firm based in Seattle, called Williamsworks. The founder and CEO of WIlliamsworks Whitney Williams serves as the co-founder of Eastern Congo Initiative (ECI). In just three years since its formation, Eastern Congo Initiative has:

When celebrities start an organisation it gives them the possibility to set a strong foundation for activism and leadership, as well as a long-term commitment to an issue. It also gives credibility to the celebrity figure. Celebrities who decide to start foundations with little to no knowledge often face negative consequences for their work.

Ben Affleck’s work has drawn attention to the DRC, his organisation raises money, and highlights the work of Congolese community-based organisations. He is an example of a celebrity who has done their homework, and this has earned him credibility and praise.

Reference –

Budabin, A 2014, ‘Do Celebrity Humanitarians Matter?’, Carnegie Council, 11 December, viewed 25 August, <http://www.carnegiecouncil.org/publications/ethics_online/0100&gt;

Eastern Congo Initiative, Williamsworks, viewed 25 August 2015, <http://williamsworks.com/our-clients/eastern-congo-initiative/&gt;

Celebrities – Activist or Humanitarians?

BeyMA’s Feminist Performance

“Feminist: a person who believes in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes” (Adichie C N, 2013)

Celebrities have mass audience followers on a number of platforms, so when celebrities use there voice as a megaphone to teach the world about social and political problems it can be extremely beneficial. At the VMA’s in August 2014, Beyoncé made the definition of feminism go viral, projecting Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s words from her TED Talk “We Should All Be Feminists” in her song ‘Flawless’ –

“We teach girls to shrink themselves, to make themselves smaller. We say to girls, you can have ambition, but not too much. You should aim to be successful, but not too successful. Otherwise, you would threaten the man… We teach girls that they cannot be sexual beings in the way that boys are.”


These words provided sort of an introduction to feminism that matters. Not only did it help Chimamanda’s career but it exposed many young Black women and other people to a feminist thinker they might’ve not known about before. When performing the song “Flawless” at the VMA’s Beyoncé did it in front of a giant screen blazoned with the word “FEMINIST”.

Shortly after Beyoncé’s performance, celebrity Taylor Swift told the Guardian that her previous rejection of feminism was because she didn’t understand what the word meant. Swift said to the Guardian in August 2014 that “what it seemed to me, the way it was phrased in culture, society, was that you hate men. And now, I think a lot of girls have had a feminist awakening because they understand what the word means”.

Screen Shot 2015-08-31 at 10.01.08 amHowever, the same week she declared that she was a feminist she released a video in which she twerks and crawls through the disembodied legs of coloured women. It is clear that celebrities should educate themselves on feminism and move forward with the intention of creating good change, not just have the intentions for good PR.

Beyoncé already got us started – she directly references feminism in her work and penned an article in support of equal pay, among other things. Feminism is a movement for social and political change, not a popularity contest. There is no debating the hugely powerful cultural message sent at the VMA’s in 2014 when Beyoncé sang about feminism, while her husband looked on lovingly, holding their daughter (Valenti J, 2014). Beyoncé is reclaiming the word ‘Feminist’ and encouraging her fans to reclaim the word as well.

Reference –

Adichie, C N 2013, We Should All Be Feminist’, online video, 29 April, TEDx, viewed 31 August 2015, http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/We-should-all-be-feminists-Chim

Carter, K B 2014, ‘Gender Equality Is a Myth!’, The Shriver Report, 12 January, viewed 31 August 2015, http://shriverreport.org/gender-equality-is-a-myth-beyonce/

Hobby, H 2014, ‘Taylor Swift: ‘Sexy? Not on my radar’’, The Guardian, 23 August, viewed 31 August 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/music/2014/aug/23/taylor-swift-shake-it-off

Valenti, J 2014, ‘Beyoncé’s ‘Flawless’ feminist act at the VMAs leads the way for other women’, The Guardian, 26 August, viewed 31 August 2015, http://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2014/aug/25/beyonce-flawless-feminist-vmas 

BeyMA’s Feminist Performance

A Fine Line Between Cultural Appropriation and Appreciation

“The problem with appropriating cultures is that you take on the Afro or the cornrow or the box braid without understanding the history behind it. And when you don’t understand the history behind something, you don’t understand the context in which it’s done, and that’s what makes it offensive.” (Blay Z, 2015)

Allure BCM

Cultural appropriation is usually defined in a specific context in which an element of a subjugated culture is taken away from these people and turned into a commodity or costume. Cultural appropriation is usually talked about in politically charged ways, it is often talked about when white people misuse non-white symbols. Cultural symbols are full of history, and implemented with multiple meaning.

Rarely people who use appropriated symbols make efforts to understand them and their culture. They play with the image they have of that culture instead. For example, African American women have to mask themselves if they want to fit in with the majority culture, straightening their hair every day, or using harsh perms and washes to ensure it stays straight. So when white women decide they want make a fashion statement and turn their straight hair into an Afro, without recognising its cultural and historical importance, things become problematic.

Allure magazine found itself in the middle of an online frenzy in relation to a hair tutorial they published in its August 2015 issue titled, “You (Yes, You) Can Have An Afro.*” with a subtitle “even if you have straight hair” (Wilson J, 2015). This article clearly aimed at white women who have “straight hair”, yet want to appropriate an African American traditional hairstyle.

The Afro style in particular would have been an amazing opportunity to use a black actress, and yet there were no actresses of colour used in the feature.  The appreciation of the Afro’s “rich cultural and aesthetic” history wasn’t mentioned in the piece, so paying respect to its beauty by offering steps for white women to emulate it without the appropriate historical context and respect is problematic.

In the Allure tutorial, the words “rag curls” are used in reference to manipulating hair into an Afro. The line between cultural appreciation and cultural appropriation has been crossed. If Allure had referenced its adoration for the Afro, then maybe this feature wouldn’t have had so much backlash and criticism.

Reference –

Gebreyes, R 2015, ‘Allure, Black Hair And The Fine Line Between Cultural Appreciation And Appropriation, The Huffington Post, 13th Aug, viewed 29th Aug 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/allure-afro-appreciation-appropriation_55cbac23e4b064d5910a5ddd?section=australia&adsSiteOverride=au

Wilson, J 2015, ‘Allure Catches Hell For Teaching White Women How To Get An Afro’, The Huffington Post, 3rd Aug, viewed 29 Aug 2015, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/allure-afro-tutorial-outrage_55bf852ae4b06363d5a2b1ae?section=australia&adsSiteOverride=au 

A Fine Line Between Cultural Appropriation and Appreciation

‘I Quit Sugar’, wait! why?

IQuitsugar1    or    dont-quit-sugar

‘I Quit Sugar’ is a book by Sarah Wilson, it was published February 28th 2012; the book includes recipes, an 8-Week Program and, the authors story. Like majority of Food Bloggers today, ‘I Quit Sugar’ has a book, an e-book, a Facebook account, Twitter account, Instagram account, and Pinterest account. The ‘New York Times bestseller Sarah Wilson’ is a former newspaper, magazine and TV journalist.

The ‘I Quit Sugar’ Website begins with the author’s personal journey with sugar, Sarah Wilson states that she stopped eating sugar because her specialist had told her for years that this was the right thing to do. On her website Wilson writes, “I have an autoimmune disease (Hashimotos, a disease that attacks the thyroid and mostly affects women over 40) and sugar flares my condition terribly” (Wilson 2012).

What the author fails to mention on her website and in her book is that there are many different kinds of sugars out there. There is glucose, which is a very common basic sugar. It is the basic compound in cellular respiration (for plants) and glycolysis (for humans) that creates energy. Glucose is found in all plants, therefore Sarah Wilson has not quit sugars, she has only quit specific sugars. This highlights the generalisation that Sarah Wilson makes when she claims that she has ‘quit sugar’.

Popular social media blog Mamamia has also commented on the misconceptions of ‘I Quit Sugar’ stating that there is a strong view amongst many nutritionists and eating disorder experts that cutting out sugar entirely can be dangerous for both mental and physical health. Research has shown repeatedly that serious restriction and deprivation can be pathways to 1. Binge eating episodes, 2. Disordered eating or 3. Eating disorder development, in some individuals (Katowicz 2013).

Sydney nutritionist Cassie Platt, released a book called ‘Don’t Quit Sugar’ which isn’t a direct hit at ‘I Quit Sugar’, but does aim to expose myths about sugar intake and explain that sugar-free diets can actually damage the body. Platt (2013) stated, “Sugar is our cells’ it is a preferred source of energy and is absolutely critical to proper metabolic function. Eliminating it from the diet will do you harm”. Platt also believes that the unfounded fear of fructose, which is the type of sugar found in fruit, is crazy. It is the new low-sugar diets that demonise fructose, therefore people become fearful of foods that contain it and this includes fruit.

What a majority of the backlash about ‘I Quit Sugar’ is stating is that there needs to be balanced eating and dieting, people trying diets need to take a step back from restrictions. Before going out and spending a large amount on a best-selling book, do the research, because it might not be as glamorous as it seems.

Reference –

2013, ‘Cassie Platt urges ‘Don’t Quit Sugar’ in new book blasting anti-sugar trend’, news.com.au, 26 November, viewed 3 August, <http://www.news.com.au/lifestyle/health/cassie-platt-urges-dont-quit-sugar-in-new-book-blasting-antisugar-trend/story-fneuzkvr-1226769365281&gt;

2013, ‘She Ate Sugar’, Mumamia, 27 August, viewed 3 August, <http://www.mamamia.com.au/news/you-know-what-dont-quit-sugar/&gt;

Kotowicz, P 2013, I Quit Sugar, Um. Why?, Paula Kotowicz Counsellor, viewed 3 August 2015, <http://paulakotowicz.com/i-quit-sugar-um-why/&gt;

Sarah Wilson 2014, ‘My Story’, I Quit Sugar, viewed 3 August 2015, <https://iquitsugar.com/start-here/my-story/&gt;

‘I Quit Sugar’, wait! why?

Racism incorporated in children Disney Films


The representation of race in popular Hollywood film can have an impact on the audience’s interpretation of certain groups or nationalities. There is a long history which involves the stereotyping of an ethnic group, such as Mexicans or Native Americans by the Westerners, or Arabs and Muslims in contemporary Hollywood. It is extremely common in contemporary Hollywood films that Arabs and Muslims are portrayed as negative, they are usually stereotyped and associated with terror or terrorism.

I remember when I was a little girl, there was not much I loved more then the Disney movies, I was infatuated with the princesses, the flying carpets and the animals under the sea. At the time I was unaware that what Disney was doing was employing caricatures that helped educate children on how they expect other races to look and act, there were a number of racist elements that were being implemented into the minds of every child watching these films.

The popular children’s movie Aladdin, produced by Walt Disney in 1992 featured numerous racist stereotypes about people from the Middle East. Whereas Aladdin and princess Jasmine (the heroes of the film) are given American accents and lighter skin, the villains of the film such as Jafar are represented as darker skinned and treacherous. Similar, the greedy merchants in the film are given Arabic accents and grotesque facial features. There is also the song that opens the movie ‘Arabian Nights’ which paints a completely racist picture of the Middle East through its lyrics: “Oh I come from a land, From a faraway place, Where the caravan camels roam, Where they cut off your ear if they don’t like your face, It’s barbaric, but hey, its home”. The Disney film represents the Middle East as a place that should be avoided and this creates a misleading image of the Arabs (Wingfield & Karaman, 1995). It is Hollywood movie producers such as Walt Disney that have contributed to this negative portrayal of what Middle-Eastern countries resemble, and this ultimately has a negative impact upon the audience.

Another Disney film that has incorporated racist stereotypes is Disney’s Mulan produced in 1998 and features characters mainly of Asian decent. The movie Mulan also opens with a racist song that sets the scene for the movie, the song ‘Horror To Us All’ has lyrics like: “A girl can bring her family great honor in one way, by striking a good match, and this could be the day. Men want girls with good taste, calm, obedient, who work fast-paced. With good breeding and a tiny waist”. This song reinforces traditional Chinese stereotypes about women and the roles they are expected to play in Chinese families (Yin, 2011, p.54). It is also obvious that one of the main antagonist in the film, the villainous Shan Hu and the rest of the Huns, are heavily stereotyped and are dehumanised. There is also an underlying tone of disrespect for the Asian traditions shown in the movie through their old ways of keeping to a strict patriarchal society, it is dismissed as being trivial and unnecessary. Mulan is very obviously a Hollywood perception of the Chinese culture.

Now fifteen years on I look back at the Disney films in a different light and realise that numerous of them incorporated racist elements into what was supposed to be innocent childhood films. It is media sources such as television and movies which influence the way that people perceive society. Children learn from what the media presents to them, it is therefore vital that the American society and in particular Hollywood stray from negatively perceiving racism and stereotypes.

Reference List

Wingfield, M & Karaman, B 1995, Arab Stereotypes and American Educators, America-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee, viewed 15 April 2014, <http://www.adc.org/index.php?id=283&no_cache=1&sword_list%5B%5D=stereotype>

Jaber, H 2010, Dissecting Stereotypes: Disney’s Mulan, Heatherjay, weblog post, viewed 15 April 2014, <http://heatherjay.wordpress.com/ml-4-dissecting-stereotypes-disneys-mulan/>

Yin, J 2011, ‘Popular Culture and Public Imaginary: Disney vs. Chinese Stories of Mulan’, Javnost-The Public, Vol.18, No. 1, pp. 53-74.

Racism incorporated in children Disney Films

Are we destroying our environment?

Could constant connectedness be actively diminishing our ethical ability to dwell on interconnections between the present and the future, between media and the Earth? (Maxwell and Miller, 2012)

Toxics e-waste documentation (China : 2005)

In an era where technology is second nature, we really don’t know any different. On Sunday night at around 12 o’clock I had a black out at my house due to the crazy storm – the power didn’t come back on for 12 hours, this meant I was unable to charge my phone, charge my laptop, or even watch television. This made me realise how much we as a household and I personally rely on technology and always being connected. Our technology driven society is so reliant on having devices such as laptops, tablets and smartphones, and being constantly connected is a vital cause of being pleased.

We all know there are numerous benefits from technology devices and gadgets, but we don’t know as many of the adverse effects they have for the environment once we throw them away. There are many pros and cons of new technology, but does one outweigh the other? Some of the pros of new technologies include things like it allows us to have a worldwide virtual laboratory, which means experts from all fields can share their research, and ideas instantly. Technology also allows paperless communication such as e-mails and online bill paying to reduce the amount of tree’s cut down. However, there are numerous cons of technology, as Maxwell and Miller outline in Greening the Media, today’s digital devices are made to be broken-down and become outdated within twelve month of purchase. Why else would Apple bring out a new iPhone every year with the latest greatest appliances, with the slightest change but make it appear all the more appealing. This means that our used electronic gadgets, if we don’t pass them of to someone else, will end up in landfill generating copious amounts of e-waste.

Brands and companies make technology updates appear to be a good thing for consumers, but technology turnover comes at a cost to our environment. Even the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) acknowledges that prevailing “patterns of growth will compromise and irreversibly damage the natural environment”. The Australian Government reported that in 2007-8, around 31 million new televisions and computers were sold in Australia. In that same period, 17 million of these items reached the end of their life: 88% went to landfill and only 9% were recycled. While, on one hand, making our lives easier, technology has also had a devastating effect on the humankind and our environment.

So what can we do about this problem? Producing less technology, and finding alternatives to toxic materials could minimise threats from the growing e-waste. The most obvious things we can do to reduce environmental impact is to avoid upgrading, or to buy second-hand. We could actively try and not let technology control us. Before purchasing your next smart phone ask these questions:

What materials are used? Where did the materials come from? How was the product manufactured with regard to worker conditions and pay, energy usage, and pollution? Where did the packaging come from and how was it made? How energy efficient is the device? How easy is it to recycle and what waste products will it leave behind at the end of its life?


Reference List:

Are we destroying our environment?